Technology: One of the most significant differences between early and modern warfare is the use of technology as we have discussed. From weapons and vehicles to communication and surveillance equipment, modern militaries have access to far more advanced technology than their predecessors, making warfare more efficient and deadly.
Strategy: Early wars often involved simple strategies, with armies charging at each other in open fields. Modern warfare is much more complex, with sophisticated tactics and strategies focused on intelligence gathering, precision strikes, and asymmetrical warfare. In the past, military commanders often relied on attrition tactics, attempting to wear down their enemies through prolonged battles. Today, modern warfare encompasses a range of unconventional tactics such as guerrilla warfare, terrorism, cyber warfare, and propaganda. The use of propaganda, misinformation, and psychological operations has become increasingly important in shaping public opinion and influencing the behavior of enemy combatants although it may be argued that this was always the case.
Logistics: In the past, armies often relied on foraging and pillaging to sustain themselves during campaigns. Today, military logistics involve complex supply chains that ensure troops have access to food, water, ammunition, and medical supplies.
International Law: International law has evolved significantly since the early days of warfare. Today, there are strict rules governing the conduct of war, including the treatment of prisoners and non-combatants.